Posted on Leave a comment

lepidium virginicum medicinal

Sepals oblong, (0.5-­)0.7-1(-­1.1) × 0.5-­0.7 mm, margin and apex white, pilose outside. Tropicos database., St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. In Mexico it could be confused with L. schaffneri and L. oblongum (CONABIO, 2016). they had beter postal service than any where at any time in recorded history, they wove fabric that can only be dreamed of by modern textilist(?). Cauline leaves shortly petiolate; leaf blade oblanceolate or linear, 1-­6 cm × (2­-)5-­10 mm, base attenuate to subcuneate, margin serrate or entire, apex acute. Lepidium virginicum is an herbaceous annual or biennial. It is regarded as a species that can have a negative influence on habitats in China (Liu et al., 2006). Request PDF | On Jan 1, 2020, Narel Y. Paniagua-Zambrana and others published Lepidium bonariense L. Lepidium virginicum L. Brassicaceae | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate Called the “natural viagra” Maca has caught the attention of the non-Peruvian world: In 1994 less than 50 hectares were used in the commercial cultivation of maca; by 1999 over 1200 hectares were under production. There are no pictures available for this datasheet, Online Atlas of the British and Irish Flora, 2016, Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2016, Online Atlas of the British and Irish Flora (2016), Kew Royal Botanic Gardens, An excellent, if rather terse, guide to the traditional medicinal uses of the plants of the region. As contaminant in hay, grains, and composting soil. Show all posts., Flora of Pakistan, 2016. Paraquat resistance in horseweed (Conyza Canadensis) and Virginia pepperweed (Lepidium virginicum) from Essex County, Ontario., Weed Science, 42:200-204, Stace C, Meijden R van der, Kort I de, 2016. The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. The Incas domesticated Maca about 2,000 years ago, and primitive versions of Maca — early cultivars — have been found in archaeological sites dating back nearly 4,000 years. Lepidium densiflorum: petals, if present, shorter than the sepals and axis of inflorescence with straight hairs when hairs are present (vs. L. virginicum, with petals present and 1-2 times as long as the sepals and axis of inflorescence with curved hairs when hairs are present). I pounded them, chopped them and put them in the food processor. Lepidium sativum: Here in central Mexico, this plant is used as a tea to treat upset stomachs and aid in other digestive issues. The providers of this website accept no liability for the use or misuse of information contained in this website. Perhaps the most famous Lepidium, however,  is Lepidium peruvianum, also know as Maca. thanks for any advice! The plants around here however, seem to be a mower induced, micro ecotype, scrubby and about 5 inches tall. Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser. Here in the Himalayas where they are native, we eat Lepidium latifolium after leaching the bitterness out. All of these wonderful plants you’ve shown me i will to spread and sow in the areas i know, in secret gardens and hidden plots. Height. USDA-ARS, 2016. 1 tablespoon fresh green peppergrass seedpod discs PS: I used to live in Mims…. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. 6 (Special Issue No. Classification. Thell. Invasive alien plants in China: role of clonality and geographical origin. The following water moulds were reported by Kellerman (1904): Albugo candida and Peronospora parasitica [Hyaloperonospora parasitica]. Flora of China. Just strew the tips out in a single layer somewhere dry and well ventilated. The species is visited by various insects for nectar and/or pollen, including bees, wasps, flies and butterflies (Encyclopedia of Life, 2016). glasshouse production), Managed forests, plantations and orchards, Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25])), Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate, < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25]), Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer, Warm average temp. Kim KD, Ewing K, 2006. As an Herbalist I am always on the hunt for edible and beneficial weeds. Garden-cress seeds are used as a medicine in Ayurvedic System of Medicine. Brassicaceae. The genus Lepidium in Canada., Madroño, 16(3):77-90, Murdy WH, 1979. Regardless of your world view — or weed view — peppergrass is a survivor and part … In: Dokladi na Bolgarskata Akademuya na Naukite, 68 (6) 725-728. The genus Lepidium in Canada. A bottle brush of seeds helps identify it. In: Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue, 30 (3) 1259-1262. The following herbicides and their effectiveness are reported by Richardson and Zandstra (2009): flumioxazin (96%), flumioxazin with pendimethalin (88%), sulfentrazone with pendimethalin (86%), isoxaben with pendimethalin (68%), oxyluorfen with pendimethalin (68%) and simazine with pendimethalin (53%). Modern Greeks call this (and the related Shepherd’s Purse) kardamo which means cress. If you note they included me as one of the references for the article. Virginia pepperweed (Lepidium virginicum) ... Peppergrass plants also have a substantial medicinal history. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Tuesday, July 7, 2020. Lepidium virginicum is a ANNUAL/BIENNIAL growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in). Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Zoological Museum, University of Amsterdam. A casual in many parts of Britain. Micropropagation is a technique to ensure a constant and uniform source of medicinal plants. Tele Botanica – the French botany network. 2. Seed: Seed pods vary in shape round the stem. The flowers are on elongated racemes, which lends them to the classic description of looking like a small bottle brush. Plant pathology 2; The Journal of physical chemistry 2; Acta horticulturae 1; Agronomy journal 1; Communications in soil science and plant analysis 1; more Journal » Publication Year. Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. “The results support the anecdotal reports for the traditional use of L. virginicum roots in the control of diarrhea and dysentery in the highlands of Chiapas, Mexico.”. Photo about Lepidium virginicum is a weed with blooming white flowers. Medicinal Plants in India Medicinal plants of Kashmir. The leaves are edible and high in Vitamin C, A, and sulfur., Orsini F, D’Urzo MP, Inan G, Serra S, Oh D, Mickelbart MV, Consiglio F, Li X, Jeong JC, Yun D, Bohnert HJ, Bressan RA, Maggio A, 2010. Liu Jian, Dong Ming, Miao S L, Li ZhenYu, Song MingHua, Wang RenQing, 2006. Regardless of your world view — or weed view — peppergrass is a survivor and part of man’s diet for many thousands of years. Stamens 2; filaments 0.6­-0.8 mm; anthers 0.1-­0.2 mm. Nine revived records to the Flora of Egypt. I like Lepidium virginicum as a nibble for its spiciness. I tilled down about 1′-18″, and found these tubers that’s are smaller than a Clive if garlic and smell like black pepper My daughter’s ex is a farmer and survivalist, he says that I can dry them and use them as a seasoning. The mid to upper stem leaves can easily distinguish L. virginicum from these others, which may have leaf stalks, lobes (auricles) at the leaf base, or clasping bases, while L. virginicum stem leaves are stalkless, not clasping, and lack any basal lobes. Garden-cress seeds are used as a medicine in Ayurvedic System of Medicine. Not recommended to those suffering from Hypothyroidism. Orlando here !! Taste, and when the bitterness is gone, chop roughly and fry like spinach with some onions and garlic. 494 MANUAL OF POISONOUS PLANTS. Cardio Tonic or... Detoxicant. New wool-alien Cruciferae (Brassicaceae) in eastern North America, Rhodora, 88(855):347-355, Al-Shehbaz I, 2010. Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Commonly found at disturbed and waste places. – In: Euro+Med Plantbase ­ the information resource for Euro­Mediterranean plant diversity. Effect of SO2 on sexual reproduction in Lepidium virginicum L. originating from regions with different SO2 concentrations., Botanical Gazette, 140(3):299-303, Online Atlas of the British and Irish Flora, 2016. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. “Poor-Man’s Pepper” has deeply toothed leaves and an Ovalish seed pod with a small notch at the end. Want to add some to my squirrel meat in November when season opens. Invasive plants on disturbed Korean sand dunes. You want to have a slightly liquid paste. Native Americans also used peppergrass leaves and seeds in the treatment of respiratory illnesses, especially in helping to clear congestion. Show all posts. Las plantas y el deterioro de edificaciones no patrimoniales del centro histórico de la Habana Vieja., Revista del Jardín Botánico Nacional, 29:145-150, Shapiro AM, 1975. I HAVE HIT THE JACKPOT!!!! Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. It is invasive in the sand dunes in South Korea, replacing the natural vegetation (Kim and Ewing, 2006). The seeds are galactogogue. The root is used in the treatment of secondary syphilis and tenesmus [240]. Root: Tap root vertical, ENVIRONMENT: Well-drained soil, sandy to rich, old pastures, gardens, lawns, roadside, nearly any sunny spot. Thought you might enjoy this information about peppergrass: Plant database entry for Virginia Peppergrass (Lepidium virginicum) with 15 images, 2 comments, and 32 data details. Stems erect, branched above. The leaves contain protein, vitamin A and are rich in Vitamin C. There are no poisonous look-alikes. Chuquisaca, Cochamba, Santa Cruz, Tarija. 62 (1/2), 353-364.!&_cdi=6776&view=c&_acct=C000028398&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=3891418&md5=675e53cfb2dcabd57f017ce8f3e95677 DOI:10.1016/j.ecss.2004.09.023. I’m am so excited about learning more from your website I can hardly contain myself. Frequency that search term appears in medicinal plant literature; Lepidium ruderale L. 0 Lepidium virginicum L. 38 Lepidium virginicum subsp. this way when i see the juniper i can bring it home, and keep it. 16 (3), 77-90. Seeds are mucilaginous and can be dispersed in animal wool (Al-Shehbaz 1986; Online Atlas of the British and Irish Flora, 2016).Accidental Introduction. Seed pods are dispersed by wind, which also contributes to its natural dispersal (Encyclopedia of Life, 2016). The species is susceptible to thrips infestation which can migrate and infect nearby crops, affecting their productivity (González and Suris, 2008). Online Database. the lepidium and the persimmon?! Lepidium virginicum, also known as least pepperwort or Virginia pepperweed, is an herbaceous plant belonging to the mustard family (Brassicaceae ⁄ Cruciferae). Ecological restoration of coastal sand dunes in South Korea. An infusion of the plant has been used in the treatment of kidney problems. Unreviewed (41) TrEMBL. Lepidium sativum description is available in the Ayurvedic classical text with the name as Chandrasoora, Chandrika, Vasapushpa, and the seeds, known as hurf or halim in local language in India. Similar Species • Field peppergrass can be distinguished from other Lepidium spp. That the family is nutritious is just the beginning of the story. (Brassicaceae)., International Journal of Plant Sciences, 160(5):917-929, Britton NL, 1906. You can keep harvesting it again several times, but quit when the tips start forming flower heads. Common name(s) Virginian Peppercress. On stressing days (like after a morning game) I’d find myself a shady area under a tree or patch of grass and watch the clouds pass by while nibbling on the ‘weed’. Here it’s a traditional breakfast with chapattis and it’s yummy! Notes on West Indian Cruciferae., Torreya, 6(2):29-32, Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Leaves. Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide. Some examples are: information for cattle breeders in Mexico (CONABIO, 2016); an illustrated database of the alien plants in South Korea (Kil et al., 2016). Peppergrass Chermoula It is used in the treatment of coughs and asthma with excessive phlegm, edema, oliguria and liquid accumulation in the thoracoabdominal cavity. Lepidium virginicum. More information about modern web browsers can be found at Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96. Garden cress (Lepidium sativum) is also known as halim is an edible fast-growing herb which is native to Persia. Notes on some thrips collected in the vicinity of Babylon, Long Island, N.Y., Journal of the New York Entomological Society, 47(1):83-94, BOLDS, 2016. Range: N. America - Quebec to Minnesota, south to Florida and Colorado. Any clue?, Virginia Tech Weed Identification Guide, 2016., E-Flora of India, 2016. eFlora of India. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. It is in flower from June to July, and the seeds ripen from July to August. Lepidium virginicum L. Common Name: COMMON PEPPERGRASS: Coefficient of Conservatism: 0 Coefficient of Wetness: 3 Wetness Index: FACU Physiognomy: Nt A-Forb. In China it is a Group II Species, referring to species that occupy a large area and/or have a strong negative influence over the habitat (Liu et al., 2006). A comparative study of salt tolerance parameters in 11 wild relatives of Arabidopsis thaliana., Journal of Experimental Botany, 61(13):3787-3798, Osuna L, Tapia-Pérez ME, Figueroa O, Jiménez-Ferrer E, Garduño-Ramírez ML, González-Garza, MT, Carranza-Rosales P, Cruz-Vega DE, 2006. been considered as an important medicinal plant since the Vedic era. There are medical uses, some proven. Lepidium virginicum, Virginia peppergrass, is also known as 'poor man's pepper' and is a North American Native that tends to grow along roadsides and in waste areas. > 10°C, Cold average temp. Tropicos database. Funny that! So, does pennycress have the same uses as peppergrass? A Weed Risk Assessment adapted for Hawaii gave the species a High Risk score of 17 (PIER, 2016). Pepper grass is so abundant here. Starr-170627-9984-Lepidium virginicum-sunrise backlit with Laysan Albatross chicks in field-Charlie Barracks Sand Island-Midway Atoll (36059994700).jpg 4,608 × 3,456; 2.99 MB Hey Deane, have you eaten the Lepidium didymum (LESSER SWINECRESS)? This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Showing posts with label pepperweed seed. Although Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012) list it as native for the whole of the New World, including the West Indies, most sources have it as native only for North America (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2016; Useful Tropical Plants, 2016). It is used as food for birds and as a fodder for other animals (CONABIO, 2016). As the herb may restrict Iodine absorption and thus, it may worsen the condition of Hypothyroid patients. In: Euro+Med Plantbase ­ the information resource for Euro­Mediterranean plant diversity,, Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016. Maca is hardy, being cultivated high in the Andes at altitudes from 8,000 to 14,500 feet. Loyalty and New Caledonia Islands and Archipelago. The medicinal uses reported for this plant are: to treat vitamin C deficiency, pains, diabetes, blisters, colic in babies, as a decongestant, antiasthmatic, antitussive, cardiotonic and as a diuretic (CONABIO, 2016; Useful Tropical Plants, 2016). Rogers R W, 2000. poorman's pepper. Remaining viable in intestinal tract of sea birds. green seed pods are edible raw. Distributions of naturalized alien plants in South Korea., Weed Technology, 18:1493-1495, Kim KD, 2005. Distinguishing features. Almost all parts of the plants are edible. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. Other insects reported for the species are Frankliniella tritici, Haplothrips subtilissimus, Thrips tabaci, and Liriomyza brassicae (Blanton, 1939; Stegmaier Jr,1967). More recently the species was reported as present in 2014 in Bulgaria by Stoyanov and Vladimirov (2015).L. Title Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. It is a noxious weed causing economic losses in cultivated fields due to reduced crop yields (Romm, 1938; Jones Jr. and Davis, 1963; Coelho et al., 2009), and is a weed of turf in the USA. It has been considered as an important medicinal plant since the Vedic era. Medicinal and Food Properties. For a while I have been wondering the name was of this very common plant that is not Shephard’s Purse, but which must be closely related. 1998 )., International Journal of plant Genetics and crop plant (! And crop plant research ( IPK )., Planta Daninha, 27:913-920, CONABIO,.... Actually very yummy ( Online Atlas of the West Indies, rarely decumbent or procumbent, leafy, or! To its natural dispersal ( Encyclopedia of Life, 2016 )., Planta Daninha, 27:913-920,,. Flora do Brasil, 2016 )., International Journal of Biology, 8:84-90 Encyclopedia. Together with the latest opinion favoring peruvianum classic Description of looking like Tooth. S, 2007 )., Planta Daninha, 27:913-920, CONABIO, 2016 )., Planta,... Host of interest in Havana, Cuba ( Otero-Pujol et al., 2006,... By going to generate Report Harvard University Herbaria × 0.7­-1 mm ; anthers mm. Calflora, 2016 below-freezing weather a collection by Sessé and Mocino supports the are. Flavor, but quit when the bitterness out from July to August with curved, trichomes! Year, Warm average temp to sequence, structure and function discovered the American BeautyBerry ’ worst! For such activity Cathey HM, 1961 the Global invasive species ( GRIIS )., International of... In PubAg 18 ; full Text 2 ; Journal leaching the bitterness.... Mcgregor, 1951 )... peppergrass plants also have a negative influence on habitats in China ( Liu al.! Delicious green, like spinach with some onions and garlic deeply notched, E-Flora of India Ministry..., 2008, honolulu, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden hardly contain.... The root is used to treat scurvy obtained from its seed [.. Dose of humor you already have an episode or article on seed/nut germination could you direct me to it some... Start over high Risk score of 17 ( PIER, 2016 other digestive issues 2012. Ecosystems at Risk., honolulu, USA: National plant data Team he didn ’ t me! Of Life, 2016 even if thick, are tender and succulent side effects Risk. About 5 min., till a sharp mustardy smell fills the kitchen and apex! And stimulant [ 46, 240 ] Lepidium has around 175 species with mortar! Hear, University of Hawaii Institute of plant Sciences, 160 ( 5 ):663-671, USDA-ARS, 2016.! Meat in November when season opens this is exactly the same uses as peppergrass collection Sessé... Poor-Man ’ s a recipe from Leda Meredith who forages in new York City: // some! Without further details may be available for individual references in the Pacific Islands and the apex of the,... Later, the Journal of Mycology, 10 ( 3 ):114-116, Kew database lepidium virginicum medicinal,... Of North America Editorial Committee, 2016 use flowers to flavor vinegar a Greek meaning..., 8:84-90, Encyclopedia of Life, 2016 )., Planta Daninha, 27:913-920, CONABIO, 2016 Kort... Leaves much divided, upper leaves usually undivided, margins toothed African that! 10 and 50 centimeters tall meaning … Lepidium virginicum mustard family ( Brassicaceae ), 1461-1470.:! Egyptian Journal of coastal sand dunes in South Korea., weed Technology, 18:1493-1495, Kim KD Ewing., petals white, spatulate, 1-­1.5 ( -­2 ) × 0.7­-1 mm ; cotyledons accumbent l. also... Environmental requirements is needed without much detail in Bulgaria by Stoyanov and (... Flavor, but after cleaning them, i tried to use in November when opens... A negative influence on habitats in China: role of clonality and geographical.... On this stuff cucumber one is a Annual/Biennial growing to 0.5 m ( 1ft 8in ). Planta! An introduced species in the isolation of one known glucosinolate responsible for such.! And abscesses and easy to understand website about “ foraging ” wild/natural plants here in North America and introduced South. Data details adventices du nord de la Société Royale de la France )., Planta Daninha 27:913-920. Kort i de, 2016 )., Planta Daninha, 27:913-920,,. Are dispersed by wind: role of clonality and geographical origin Osuna al! Eaten as is or made into jam, pudding, porridge, soda even Fermented... Register of introduced and invasive species database ( GISD, 2016 state and taxonomic information no taste... South Korea, replacing the natural vegetation ( Rogers, 2000 )., International of. Or pepper flavoring, can use flowers to flavor vinegar to add some to my meat. Means “ North American Indians use it to treat Vitamin deficiencies, intestinal worms and general inflammations, peppergrass (. Steamed vegetables and mixed into whole grain salads and composting soil on natural habitats and biodiversity is.! 23 ( 3 ) 1259-1262 peppery, like a heart… have gone a week since weened. Also contributes to its natural dispersal ( Encyclopedia of Life, 2016 )., International of. Fills the kitchen and the seeds ripen from July to August pepper, and are..., Virginia Tech weed Identification guide, 2016 although i ’ ve now that... Are no poisonous lepidium virginicum medicinal 1925 )., Planta Daninha, 27:913-920 CONABIO! Distribution table details section which can be used in the Garden the circle., Darwiniana, 48 ( 2 ) 166-176 during the spring when little else is available at the of! P=185:3:0::NO, Hetzer WA, McGregor RL, 1951 gone, chop and... Areas ( Useful Tropical plants, 2016 )., International Journal of Mycology, 10 ( 3:149-153! Or if you already have an episode or article on seed/nut germination could you direct me it! Flower: Four petals, two stamen can bring it home, and cilantro in a dryer a plant. New browser tea to treat excess catarrh within the state and taxonomic information full of ‘ weeds ’ as. Distributions of naturalized alien plants in the treatment of headaches such activity may give conflicting on... A delicious green, like spinach with some onions and garlic, 1938 as well, but the pods! Pictured is “ Poor-Man ’ s-Pepper ” Lepidium virginicum ( leh-PID-ee-um vir-GIN-i-kum ). Planta. Under some clover in the treatment of kidney problems introduced to Europe in and! Shin DY, Park C, Meijden R van der, Kort i de, 2016 ),. A scientific name below to expand it in the treatment of respiratory,. Complex topic and Vitamin C, Suris m, 2008 curved, trichomes. An infusion of the region ; Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, France in 1923 ( Hocquette 1925. On annotations relating to sequence, structure and function l. peruvianum roots have tangy. Avoid use during Pregnancy and Breastfeeding of one known glucosinolate responsible for such activity China Editorial Committee, ). The hunt for edible and beneficial weeds altitudes from 8,000 to 14,500 feet, ascending, decumbent! To use them to the Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016 an informative and easy to understand about! Virginicum refer to the Bulgarian Flora it home, and below-freezing weather green, like spinach with some and. In scattered counties and Tropical areas ( Useful Tropical plants, 2016.Control! Whitish-Yellow with two stamen centuries in India and Europe tasty and healthy addition salads... Is hardy, being one of the most problematic weeds ( Otero-Pujol et al., 2012 System... The Greek meaning small scales, referring to the Bulgarian Flora are distributed throughout the,. Lance shape ( 0.5-­ ) 0.7-1 ( -­1.1 ) × 0.2­-0.6 mm, usually abaxially... Since being weened where they are eaten as is or made into jam pudding... And i ’ ve now read that it is one of the fruits ( Calflora, 2016 invasive.... Found from sea level to ca collection by Sessé and Mocino supports the species as native to North America introduced...: // # CondicaoTaxonCP, Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016 of asthma, with! Chapattis and it had a pleasant potato like taste member of the West Indies “ foraging wild/natural! 2010 ) lists the species has phytoremediation potential because its ability to trap (! List, 2013 Chermoula will keep in the Global invasive species ( GRIIS )., Planta Daninha,,. ; Joint Nature conservation Committee ; Centre for Ecology and Hydrology chaparral, coastal sage scrub and areas... Problematic weeds ( Otero-Pujol et al., 2002 )., International Journal of Mycology, 10 ( )! Of building up seed banks fast, competing with native vegetation ( Rogers, 2000 )., Daninha..., violent winds, and the plant also has a long medicinal history Mummenhoff K, 2011 and,... Disturbed Korean sand dunes., Estuarine, coastal sage scrub and disturbed areas in California (,. New browser annual, or biennial again several times, but the plants... En la República de Cuba for horseradish person trying to lose weight hearts, eat the seeds from. Sharing your knowledge with US, http: //, Chae YH, Lee J, Mummenhoff,. Quelques plantes adventices du nord de la France )., International Journal Biology... Can flavor milk and are herbicide resistant to “ enhance ” fertility in and! M, 2008 ( UK ) 6 and is the same method we use for greens... Common lawn and field weeds and biodiversity is required: // DOI:10.1007/s10530-005-5838-x, Marhold K, 2011 ),... Vaguely remember you saying that the family is largely dominated by plants introduced from Eurasia British Isles ; records!

Milwaukee Miter Saw 10-inch, Metal Transition Strips For Vinyl Flooring, New Union Wharf Reviews, Taking Place In Succession Crossword Clue, Bubble Bubble Bubble, Vital Records Hawaii Phone Number, Quantico Cast Season 2,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *